Alla inlägg under december 2008

Av ricardo rodriguez - 22 december 2008 20:05

Provide lots of activity
- ensure maximum participation.
- keep time spent waiting in line to a minimum.

• Make best use of time, facilities and equipment
- limit talking.
- design activities to suit the area you have, number of balls, varying levels of ability, etc.

• Ensure variety
- new drills constantly stimulate players.
- small game-type activities develop skills and tactical awareness.

• Explanations and demonstrations
- provide a clear model of what you want.
- ask questions such as “what did you do?” and “why did you do that?” to improve understanding.
- most players learn faster by doing than by listening.

• Appropriate practice
- provide practice activities that reflect real game situations.
- opposed activities (minor games) allow players to develop skills at their own pace.
- give feedback on individual skill and effort.
- check understanding of drills by questioning.
- be positive, specific and encouraging.

• Appropriate progression
- each step should be achievable, but challenging.
- progress from:
• slow to fast.
• simple to complex.
• unopposed to opposed.

• Safety
- physical safety is paramount.
- a non-threatening environment helps learning.

• Allow for individual differences
- players need to learn at their own rate.

• Involve players in planning
- giving players responsibility increases their commitment.

• Be organised but flexible in planning
- alter your plan if necessary, eg for poor weather.

Av ricardo rodriguez - 22 december 2008 20:00

An effective coaching session begins with good planning. Coaches are often busy people who think they “don’t have time” to plan. This means they race around at training trying to organise things, rather than coach the players to improve their skills and prepare for competition.
The focus of this module is how to plan, implement and evaluate a safe and effective coaching session.


Three steps to planning a practice• Set the framework within which you will operate.
• Decide on the objectives and content of the session.
• Evaluate it afterwards.

Setting The Framework

There are four main factors that affect the coaching session:

1. Safety
• Minimise potential risk of injury.
• Be prepared to deal with an emergency.

 2. Coaching Environment
• Equipment
• Space
• Conditions

3. The Players
• Their stage of growth and development.
• Level and interest of players.

4. Coaching Philosophy
• Reflect your values and beliefs.


Session Objectives and Content

The next task is to decide on the objectives and plan the content TO MEET THOSE OBJECTIVES.

There are four basic ingredients of a coaching session:
1. Skill Development
• Include activities that develop techniques.
• Turn these techniques into skills through application of pressure.
• Utilise skills analysis and teaching methods covered in Module 6.

2. Tactical Awareness

• Develop activities that put skills under pressure.
• Simulate game situations.
• Work on why and when to use skills, not just how.

3. Physical Preparation

• Organise activities that prepare your players physically for the demands of rugby.
• The basics of this topic are presented in Module 17

4. Mental Preparation
• Develop players’ mental abilities.
• Establish common direction, values and attitudes.
• Ensure game plans and tactics are understood.
• Set up performance review systems.
• Improve concentration and motivation.

When planning your training run, identify some objectives in each of these areas.


Examples of Training Objectives:

Skills Development
• Players must be able to follow through straight with passing hand when passing ball.

Tactical Awareness
• Players need to understand options in a 2 v 1 attacking situation, ie if tackler comes at me,
I pass it. If tackler goes to my teammate, I run.

Physical Preparation
• Players must be able to perform 20 sprints of 20–40m with 30 sec recovery after each sprint.

Mental Preparation
• Players should be able to listen while I’m talking.
• Players must be able to explain options in 2 v 1 situations. 

Av ricardo rodriguez - 22 december 2008 19:58

Questions encourage players to think about what they are doing.

• They promote a joint approach to the game.
• They create a positive atmosphere of learning and problem-solving.
• Responses will identify a range of answers rather than the “right” one.

As a rough guide, questions can relate to tactics as follows:

Time: When will you ... ?
Space: Where is ... ?
Risk: Which option ... ?

• Make sure your questions are understood.

• Don’t answer the question for them. Questioning is not something that comes naturally to everyone. It’s a skill that needs to be practised.

• Let the game be played uninterrupted for as long as possible. This gives players the opportunity to settle into the game and gives you a chance to observe the players.

• Ensure players understand the outcome you want them to achieve.

• If the game is working well, you may want to add a progression. Be aware that players have individual levels of readiness and some will be more tactically aware than others.

• Make sure players are aware of what they did before you give specific feedback.

Av ricardo rodriguez - 22 december 2008 19:56

Many games already exist with rugby, eg:

- various forms of touch rugby
- jail
- 10 passes

For those who want to develop their own games, here are a few key questions:

What tactics and skills do you want to develop within the game?

What modifications/exaggerations can you make to emphasise the above?

What will be the main challenge or problem for the players to solve?

What are the boundaries and safety rules?

How do you gain points in the game?

How do the players/ball(s) move?

How will the game start/restart after scoring?

What are some key questions you can ask?

What progressions can you make to:
    – increase complexity?
    – vary the risk?
    – increase pressure?

Are you catering for all skill levels?

Will the game encourage maximum participation and communication?

How will you place the game within your training session?

Av ricardo rodriguez - 22 december 2008 19:51

• The emphasis is on the players making decisions, rather than the coach telling them how and why to do it.

• The coach creates situations where players have to find solutions for themselves.

• This approach also assists in developing communication skills, leadership and teamwork.

Promotes long-term learning (if players discover things for themselves, they learn better).

• Caters for all levels of ability. Individuals can improve at a rate appropriate for them.

• Develops tactical awareness.

• Makes training enjoyable and increases motivation to participate.

• Takes pressure off novice coaches.

• Creates positive interaction between players and coaches.

• Promotes affiliation (being part of a team).

• Helps avoid development of inflexible techniques.

• Enhances players’ understanding of rules.

• Provides ideal situations for a questioning approach, which improves self-awareness.

Modification for Exaggeration
The coach modifies the game to exaggerate or emphasise particular tactical aspects, eg varies the number of defenders coming forward, sending the rest around a cone before they can enter the game.
Attacking players gain an understanding of how to play against a sparse defence, as opposed to a dense defence.

Modifications that can be made to achieve a variety of tactical outcomes include:

- dimensions of the playing area
- positioning of the area that can be scored in
- number of passes allowed
- banning/promoting kicking
- number of players in attack/defence
- scoring system, including bonus points for particular plays
- risk, eg deducting points for intercepted/dropped balls
- time allowed
- specific roles for players (eg halfback)
- adding or deleting game rules

Av ricardo rodriguez - 22 december 2008 19:48

“Game Sense” uses games as a learning tool to:

- increase motivation of players
- develop tactical and strategic thinking
- improve skills

• This approach is “game” rather than “technique” centred.

• Traditionally, we’ve taught techniques in isolation, eg repetitions of a spiral pass.

• While the technique is important, there is limited value in practising it without taking into account other factors involved in executing the skill, eg deciding whether to pass or run in a two-on-one situation.

By making a modified game the focus of the session, players are challenged to think about what they are doing and why.

The players must first have a clear understanding (model) of what the game is about.

• The technique follows the game when the need for it is established:

Av ricardo rodriguez - 22 december 2008 19:44

The Code

1. Respect the rights, dignity and worth of every individual athlete as a human being
Treat everyone equally regardless of sex, disability, ethnic origin or religion.
Respect the talent, developmental stage and goals of each athlete in order to help each athlete reach their full potential.

 2. Maintain high standards of integrity.
Operate within the rules of your sport and in the spirit of fair play, while encouraging your athletes to do the same.
Advocate a sporting environment free of drugs and other performance enhancing substances within the guidelines of the New Zealand Sports Drug Agency and the World Anti-Doping Code.
Do not disclose any confidential information relating to athletes without their written prior consent.

 3. Be a positive role model for your sport and athletes and act in a way that projects a positive image of coaching
All athletes are deserving of equal attention and opportunities.
Ensure the athlete’s time spent with you is a positive experience.
Be fair, considerate and honest with athletes.
Encourage and promote a healthy lifestyle – refrain from smoking and drinking alcohol around athletes.

 4. Professional responsibilities
Display high standards in your language, manner, punctuality, preparation and presentation.
Display control, courtesy, respect, honesty, dignity and professionalism to all involved within the sphere of sport – this includes opponents, coaches, officials, administrators, the media, parents and spectators.
Encourage your athletes to demonstrate the same qualities.
Be professional and accept responsibility for your actions.
You should not only refrain from initiating a sexual relationship with an athlete, but should also discourage any attempt by an athlete to initiate a sexual relationship with you, explaining the ethical basis of your refusal.
Accurately represent personal coaching qualifications, experience, competence and affiliations.
Refrain from criticism of other coaches and athletes.

 5. Make a commitment to providing a quality service to your athletes
Seek continual improvement through ongoing coach education, and other personal and professional development opportunities.
Provide athletes with planned and structured training programmes appropriate to their needs and goals.
Seek advice and assistance from professionals when additional expertise is required.
Maintain appropriate records.

 6. Provide a safe environment for training and competition
Adopt appropriate risk management strategies to ensure that the training and/or competition environment is safe.
Ensure equipment and facilities meet safety standards.
Ensure equipment, rules, training and the environment are appropriate for the age, physical and emotional maturity, experience and ability of the athletes.
Show concern and caution toward sick and injured athletes.
Allow further participation in training and competition only when appropriate.
Encourage athletes to seek medical advice when required.
Provide a modified training programme where appropriate.
Maintain the same interest and support toward sick and injured athletes as you would to healthy athletes.

 7. Protect your athletes from any form of personal abuse
Refrain from any form of verbal, physical or emotional abuse towards your athletes.
Refrain from any form of sexual or racial harassment, whether verbal or physical.
Do not harass, abuse or discriminate against athletes on the basis of their sex, marital status, sexual orientation, religious or ethical beliefs, race, colour, ethnic origins, employment status, disability or distinguishing characteristics.
Any physical contact with athletes should be appropriate to the situation and necessary for the athlete’s skill development.
Be alert to any forms of abuse directed towards athletes from other sources while in your care.

Coaches should:

    • Be treated with respect and openness

    • Have access to self-improvement opportunities

    • Be matched with a level of coaching appropriate to their ability

Av ricardo rodriguez - 22 december 2008 19:41

The information a coach gives to the players about their performance is one form of extrinsic feedback.

The purpose of feedback is to compare the players’ actual performance in the practice with the desired performance. Effective feedback should help the player learn and develop his or her skills to improve performance.

How the coach gives feedback to the player and how the player receives that feedback are important considerations for effectiveness. Both the coach and the player’s communication skills can be a limiting factor in giving and receiving effective feedback.


Following are some guidelines for providing (extrinsic) coach feedback:

• Feedback should be positive and encouraging, particularly for younger players.

• Feedback should be constructive – if an error is identified then the coach should provide reasons for the error and possible solutions.

• Feedback should be given immediately following the performance while it is still fresh in the mind of the player.

• Feedback should be specific to what the player was asked to perform.

• Feedback should be consistent with the player’s stage of growth and development.

• Encourage your players to feel the movement to develop their own intrinsic feedback.

When giving feedback, keep in mind that information stays with learners for between 20 and 30 seconds, so it is important to get players practising as soon as possible after feedback.

Keep the instructions short and have the player focus on only one or two elements at a time.

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